Issues Relating to Musharakah
Musharakah is a mode of financing in Islam. Following are some issues relating to the tenure of Musharakah, redemption in Musharakah and the mixing of capital in conducting musharakah. These were discussed previously, they are explained in detail here.
Liquidity of Capital
A question commonly asked in the operation of Musharakah is whether the capital invested needs to be in liquid form or not. The answer as to whether the contract in Musharakah can be based on commodities only or on money varies among the different schools of thought in Islam. For example if Zaid and Bakar agree to invest Rs.1000 each in a garment business and both keep their investments with themselves. Then if Zaid buys cloth with his investment will it be considered belonging to both Zaid and Bakar or only to Zaid? Furthermore if the cloth is sold, can Zaid alone claim the profit or loss on the sale? In order to answer this question the prime consideration should be whether the partnership becomes effective without mixing the two investments profit or loss. This issue can be resolved in the light of the following schools of thought of different fiqhs:
Imam Malik is of the view that liquidity is not a condition for the validity of Musharakah. Therefore even if a partner contributes in kind to the partnership his share can be determined on the basis of the evaluation according to the prevalent market price at the date of the contract.
However Imam Hanifa and Imam Ahmad do not allow capital of investment to be in kind. The reason for this restriction is as follows:
Commodities contributed by one partner will always be distinguishable from the commodities given by the other partners therefore they cannot be treated as homogenous capital.
If in case of redistribution of share capital to the partners tracing back each partners share becomes difficult. If the share capital was in the form of commodities then redistribution cannot take place because they may have been sold at that time.
Imam Shafi has an opinion dividing commodities into two:
Dhawat-ul-Amthal: Commodities which if destroyed can be compensated by similar commodities in quality and quantity. Exampla rice, wheat etc.
Dhawat-ul-Qeemah: Commodities that cannot be compensated by similar commodities like animals.
Imam Shafi is of the view that commodities of the first kind may be contributed to Musharakah in the capital while the second type of commodities cannot be a part of the capital. In case of Dhawat-ul-Amthal redistribution of capital may take place by giving to each partner the similar commodities he had invested and earlier the commodities need to be mixed so well together that the commodity of one partner cannot be distinguished from commodities contributed by the other.
Therefore, it should be remembered that the illiquid goods can be made capital of investment and the market value of the commodities shall determine the share of the partner in the capital.
Mixing of the Capital
In case of illiquid capital being used the mixing of capital is an issue. According to Imam Shafi partners’ capital should be mixed so well that it cannot be discriminated and this mixing should be done before any business is conducted. Therefore, partnership will not be completely enforceable if any kind of discrimination is present in the partners’ capital. His argument is based on the reasoning that unless both investments will be mixed the investment will remain under the ownership of the original investor and any profit or loss on trade of that investment will be entitled to the original investor only. Hence such a partnership is not possible where the investment is not mixed.
According to Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmed bin Hunbul the partnership is complete only with an agreement and the mixing of capital is not important. They are of the opinion that when two partners agree to form a partnership without so far mixing their capital of investment, then if one partner bought some goods for the partnership with his share of investment of Rs. 100,000, these goods will be accepted as being owned by both partners and hence any profit or loss on sale of these goods should be shared according to the partnership agreement.
However, if the share of investment of one person is lost before mixing the capital or buying anything for the partnership business, then the loss will be borne solely by the person who’s owned the capital and will not be shared by other partners. However if the capital of both had been mixed and then a part of whole had been lost or stolen the loss would have been borne by both.
Since in Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali schools of thought mixing of the capital is not important therefore a very important present day issue is addressed with reference to this principle. If some companies or trading houses enter into partnership for setting up an industry to conduct business they need to open LC for importing the machinery. This LC reaches the importer through his bank. Now when the machinery reaches the port and the importing companies need to pay for taking possession the latter need to show those receipts in order to take possession of the goods.
Under Shafi school of thought, the imported goods cannot become the capital of investment but will remain in the ownership of the person opening the LC because at the time of opening the LC the capital has not been mixed and without mixing the capital Musharakah cannot come into existence. Under this situation if the goods are lost during shipment the burden of loss will fall upon the opener of the LC, even though the goods were being imported for the entire industry. This is because even though a group of companies had asked for the machinery or imported goods the importers had not mixed their capital at the time of investment.
Contrary to this since the other three schools of thought believe that partnership comes into existence at the time of agreement rather than after the capital has been mixed therefore the burden of loss will be borne by all. This has two advantages:
- a) In case of loss the burden of loss will not fall upon one rather will be shared by all firms of the partner.
- b) If the capital is provided at the time of the agreement it stays blocked for the period during which the machinery is being imported. While if the capital was not kept idle, till the actual operation could be conducted with the machinery the same capital could have been used for something else as well.
This shows that the decision of the three combined schools of thought is better equipped to handle the current import export situation.
Tenure of Musharakah
For conducting a Musharakah agreement, questions arise pertaining to fixing the period of the agreement. For fixing the tenure of the Musharakah following conditions should be remembered:
- a) The partnership is fixed for such a long time that at the end of the tenure no other business can be conducted.
- b) Can be for a very short time period during which partnership is necessary and neither partner can dissolve the partnership.
Under the Hanafi school of thought a person can fix the tenure of the partnership because it is an agreement and an agreement should have a fixed period of time.
In the Hanbal school of thought the tenure can be fixed for the partnership as it’s an agency agreement and an agency agreement in this school can be fixed. The Maliki school however says that Shirkah cannot be subjected to a fixed tenure. Shafi school like the Maliki consider fixing the tenure to be not permissible. Their argument is that fixing the period will prohibit conducting the business at the end of that period which in turn means that the fixing will prevent them from conducting the business.
Source: Dr. Muhammad Imran Ashraf Usmani, Meezan Bank’s Guide to Islamic Banking.