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Impact of Waqf on Peace Economy

Gwadabe Nura Abubakar
By Gwadabe Nura Abubakar
2 weeks ago
Impact of Waqf on Peace Economy

Hadith, Islam, Waqf, Zakat, Usufruct, Participation, Provision, Waqif

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  1. Impact of Waqf on Peace Economy Gwadabe Nura Abubakar Department of Islamic Studies Yusuf Maitama Sule University , kano Abstract Waqf as perpetual charity according to the legacy of the Qur'an and Sunnah presents the groundwork of the field of sustainability and wellbeing using the precept of balanced and participatory interaction. Such a systemic relationship is the actual Islamic inter-causal and Maslaha (wellbeing) elements of the highest Islamic worldview of unity according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah. The chapter examine the impact of Waqf on peace Economics for the economic growth of the Muslim societies. The chapter is purely theoretical in nature. Thus, the Glorious Qur’an, hadith and other related documents are its major sources. The paper will provide the explanation on potential impacts of waqf system towards peace economic development in terms of equal distribution of wealth, sound government, and low level of corruption. Key words: Waqf, peace economics, distribution of wealth, 1. Introduction Islam is a comprehensive way of life that encompasses all aspects of human endeavour in this life, be they economic, spiritual, social or political. An economic system of an Islamic nature concerns itself with social wellbeing, Islam as a universal religion has covered all human endeavours, Islam has encouraged Muslims in the various verses of the Qur'an and prophetic traditions with regards to distributive justice and societal support from the wealthy individuals to the less 1
  2. privilege ones . Islam has made various provisions for poverty reductions such as zakat, waqf, sadaqa, gift, booty among others, but the main obstacle is the utilization of such. Present day's literatures define Waqf as endowment. But this hardly a meaning conveyed of the Islamic nature to bring out and apply the principle of unity of knowledge and unity of being between Waqf and social wellbeing in perpetuity. To discover the actual meaning of perpetual charity. It is this latter context of Waqf and wellbeing that comprises the Prophet Muhammad's explanation of charity and the Qur’anic conveying of the meaning of charity. Both the prophet’s and the Qur’anic meanings of charity can be applied to the wellbeing interrelationship between Waqf as a form of perpetual charity and the moral and social implication of Waqf with social peace. Islam advocates various peaceful and peacebuilding esteems and anticipates that Muslims will live by them. These qualities are upheld by the Quran and the Hadith (the Prophet's platitudes) .One of these qualities is the obligation to seek after equity (Quran 5:8). Another is the need of doing great by battling against abuse and helping the individuals who are in in need. A third such esteem is that all people are Allah's creation, have hallowed lives, and hence are equivalent (7:11Islam gives no exceptional benefits in view of race, Ethnicity, or innate association. In addition, all Muslims are to regard and save human life (5:32). Islam additionally requires the journey for peace, which is a condition of physical, mental, otherworldly, and social concordance (5:64). Different verses stretch the significance of resistance and kind ness to the general population (16:90). Taking into account the life of the Prophet, one notes his utilization of peaceful techniques to oppose the individuals who abused him; the Prophet never used violence or power.) 2
  3. 2 . Objective of the Paper The objective of this research is explaining the reason of practical application the interrelationship of perpetuity of wellbeing arising from such an interrelationship between Waqf and peace in the context of wellbeing. Waqf as a means for actualizing the wellbeing objective of peace; and thereby the objectivity of actualizing sustainability for the specific wellbeing of the Muslim Ummah as well we Economic growth. The methodology employed is library research, the Glorious Qur’an and hadith being the major sources. Other sources include books, journals and related publications. 3. Waqf, Concept and definitions Waqf emanated from the Arabic term "waqafa" which signifies to keep, hold or confine. Waqf refers to restricting or forbidden the movement, exchange or transporting something. (Ahmad R.,2011) Technically, Waqf means detainment of a particular thing by the proprietor or training that all the advantages derives should be given as a charity for the benefit of the less privilege once, for the sake of Allah and with intentions of getting rewards from Him. Kahf, M, (1998) defines Waqf as "holding a Maal (an asset) and preventing its consumption for the purpose of repeatedly extracting its usufruct for the benefit of an objective representing righteousness or philanthropy". According Khaf this definition includes both two types of Waqf, the perpetual Waqf, which all the four schools of thought unanimously agreed upon them and Temporary Waqf which Maliki School of Thought approved. 3
  4. Lahsasna , (2010) Define the Waqf as conferment of property, movable or immovable form the founder (waqif) to the dedication of its usufruct in permanence for the welfare of society. He further laments that the general concept of Waqf is grounded on the above. However, the concept of cash Waqf should be more oriented towards financial and economic dimension in the society. Khademothoseini, (2008) illuminate that the Waqf institutions has been sharpen in different number of Muslim nations through the making of movable Waqf and cash Waqf as well. Jurist of different schools of Islamic thought have interpreted Waqf differently. There are different opinions with regards to the definition of Waqf between Islamic jurists. According to Abu Hanifa, endowment of property means prohibition of physical property (ayn) owned by the waqif for another party giving the benefits from that property for welfare purposes, weather for the present or future. (Ibn al-Humam 1977). In the view of al- Shafi'i school of thought, Waqf of property is permanent holding or prohibition of property for the benefit of that property while the property owner loses ownership. Endowment of the property is a form of charity to get closer to Allah S.W.T. ( al-Sharbini, Muhammad ibn Ahmad. 1994). Imam Malik says, Waqf means prohibition from dealings by the owner, while at the same time ownership remains with the waqif and may be utilized for welfare purposes.( al-‘Aynayn, Badran Abu. 1986) The waqif may also divide the property into combination of general Waqf and specific Waqf. Although, there are variant definition of terms, the essential legitimate significance of Waqf is concurred all through the Muslim world as the devotion of a property for religious philanthropy and for the benefits of the society.( Mahmood S.M 2006) Also the divergent views of these interpretations of the meaning 4
  5. of these key- economic related concepts in Islam were not an issue of concern , provided they does not contradict or go against the teachings of Qur'an and Sunnah. ( Haneef, M. A 2005) The nature of Waqf as endowment classifies Waqf into a charity of concentrated form of endowment. The wider field of valuation as by social capital is not necessarily maintained. The result in historical case and by permissibility of some religious sects has been of endowment managed by the donor. It would thereby be socially defective if Waqf was an educational institution, a resource development outlook, a medical and health centre for no focus on the poor, needy, and deprived. On a wider scale of social capital, Waqf as perpetual charity with its wider outlook of moral, material, and social depth is expected to provide human relief, social and financial assistance and a means of poverty alleviation, employment generation, educational development, provision of health care facilities, and importantly curving away the insecurity. Waqf in the Qur’an and Hadith There are many references from Qur'an and Hadith supporting the act of charity and financial assistance from the wealthy individuals to the needy and poor people in the society, as an act of worship to Allah with the intention of having reward from Him. Even though there is no particular reference made to Waqf in the Qur'an. ( Cizacka,M 1998) Allah states in the Qur'an: "They ask you (O Muhammad) what they should spend. Say: whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and the poor and the wayfarers, and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allah knows it well” (Q. 2:215) "O you who believe spend of good things which you have (legally) earned, and that which we have produced from the earth for you, and do not aim at that which is bad to spend 5
  6. from it , (though) you will not accept it save if you close your eyes and tolerate there in. and knows that Allah is Rich (free of all needs) and worthy of all praise" (Q 2: 267), "And in their properties there was the right of the sa'il (the beggar who asks) and Mahrum (the poor who does not ask others". (Q. 51:19) " who believe in the Ghaib and perform As- Salat and spend out of what we provided for them (i.e give zakat, spend on themselves, their parents, their children, their wives and also give charity to the poor and also in Allah's cause” (Q. 2:3) During the early period of Islam in Madinah Masajid were built as Awqaf, among them are the Prophets Mosque, Quba Mosque, Bani dinar Mosque, al Sajada Mosque, Bani Tufrah Mosque and others (Ahmad & Saifullahi 2012) upon hearing the revelation of the verse 92 in Surah Al Imran, Abu Talha one of the companions of the prophet went to Allah's apostle and says: "O Allah's Messenger in line with Allah's command that one will not attain piety until he spend of what he love, and the most beloved property to me is Bayruha a garden where the prophet used to go and sit under its shade and drink water. I gave it to Allah and His messenger, hoping for Allah's reward in the hare after. So, O Allah's messenger use it as Allah orders you to use it. Allah's Messennger commend him and said O Abu Talha, it is fruitful property we have accept it from you and now we return it to you, distribute it among your relatives."( Al-Shawkani, n.d) there are three types of waqf as follows: Waqf khairy can be of anything useful that will be beneficial to the less privileged in the community. For the waqf khairy to be valid, the waqif must reach the age of puberty, sane, and free man during the time of the donation of the property, otherwise the waqf is null and void. 6
  7. Waqf Ahli (family waqf) is a kind of waqf in which a dedicated property or the income generated is used for the benefit of the family members, waqf Ahli can be in form of education, shelter, healthcare and other needs of the immediate family of the founder. The essence of this waqf is to assist the family members and to ease the sufferings that the children might encounter with the demise of their parents. This kind of waqf is regarded as a good security device for the children's future. Mixed Waqf, is a combination of waqf khairy as well as waqf Ahly, it is a situation where a dedicated property can be use partly for general waqf and partly for family waqf. In this situation the founder must make it clear that a particular property is specifically for family waqf while others are for the public waqf. Therefore, it is mandated upon the management to specify the mixed waqf at a time of declaration or donation. Cash Waqf Cash waqf refers to a form of endowment of amount of money for religious dedications. ( Khademotheseini, M, 2008) Cash waqf also means an amount of money contributed or gifted as a capital to the needy to start up some business and generates some incomes. Unlike zakat, cash waqf has no limit, any amount of money can be donated as cash waqf. Cash waqf has made a significant contribution in reviving the waqf in present days in most of the Muslim nations such as Malaysia, Singapore, Kuwait, Pakistan and Qatar. 5. Concept of Peace Economics Peace economics aspects is a specific branch of Economic aspects. Peace economics matters centers around the plan of the sociosphere's political, monetary, and social organizations and their connecting arrangements and activities with the objective of 7
  8. counteracting , relieving, or settling rough clash inside and between social orders. This brutal clash could be of any kind and could include either latent or genuine violence. (Brauer, Jurgen and Raul Caruso. 2012). Peace economics has likewise been characterized as "the utilization of economics aspects to comprehend the circumstances and end results of fierce clash in the worldwide framework and the manners in which that contention can be evaded, overseen, or settled. (Anderton, Charles H. and John R. Carter. 2007) Positive Peace Positive Peace is characterized as the manners, establishments and structures that make and support peaceful social orders. Positive Peace is defined as peace with fairness for all. Often, “peace” is mixed up essentially as the absence of some negative power, for example, strain or brutality, and peace isn't just the nonappearance of pressure, however the nearness of equity. PILLARS OF POSITIVE PEACE 8
  9. WellFunctioning Government Equitable Distribution of Resources Low levels of Corruption POSITIVE PEACE High levels of Human Capital High levels of Human Capital Good Relations with Neighbours Free Flow of Information Well-Functioning Government A well-functioning government conveys brilliant open and common administrations , incites trust and cooperation, exhibits political security, and maintains the administer of law. Equitable Distribution of Resources Peaceful nations tend to guarantee value in access to assets, for example, instruction and wellbeing, and also, in spite of the fact that to a lesser degree, value in income dispersion. Good Relations with Neighbours Peaceful relations with different nations are as vital as great relations between groups inside a nation. Nations with positive outside relations are more serene and tend to be more politically steady, have better working governments, are locally coordinated and 9
  10. have bring down levels of sorted out inner clash . This factor is additionally helpful for business and backings foreign direct investments, tourism and human capital inflows. Free Flow of Information Free and autonomous media spread information in a way that prompts more prominent receptiveness and enables people and common society to cooperate. High levels of Human Capital A qualified human capital base mirrors the degree to which social orders instruct people and advance the improvement of education, along these lines enhancing financial efficiency, tend to the youth, empowering political investment and expanding social capital Sound Business Environment The strength of economic conditions moreover because the formal establishments that support the operation of the personal sector and verify the soundness of the business atmosphere. Low levels of Corruption In social orders with high corruption, wealth are wastefully distributed, regularly prompting an absence of subsidizing for fundamental administrations. The subsequent disparities can prompt common turmoil and in extraordinary circumstances can be the impetus for more genuine violence. Low corruption can improve certainty and trust in institutions. 10
  11. 6 . Impact of Waqf to the Peace Economy. Waqf plays a vital role in the peace economy, Waqf was considered as an important economic institution which helps in establishing peace in the society, generating income and enhancing the economic growth. (Abdullahi, S.O 2005) From the economic point of view, waqf could be considered as investiment funds into a productive and perspective assets for the revenue generation instead of just consumptions. Therefore, waqf is an act of investiment as well as savings. Due to the perpetuital nature of waqf that could not be sold neither disposed, with the donations of more waqf properties, the investiment is increasing and more incomes and job opportunities are certain. Therefore, the contemporary contributions of waqf properties to the peace economy and economic development can be explained as follows: 11
  12. Equality in distribution of income and wealth The institution of waqf make significant effort in achieving the just distribution of income and wealth in the economy . It has achieved that through the donations and gifts from the wealthy individuals for the benefit of the public.(Nik Hassan, N.M 2008) Islam encourages individuals to give out sadaqa or spend their wealth in the form of waqf for the benefit of poor people, through such mechanism, individuals are assiting the government in improving the lives of the needy and poor in the society. The waqf properties donated by the wealthy individuals provide for the benefit of the needy and the general public, this gesture serves to reduce the effets of income and wealth inequality in the society. Therefore, the waqf property could remove the possibility of concentration of treasure among the society. (Siddiqi,M.N). therefore, 12
  13. by equal distribution of the wealth from the rich people to the poor tend to provide a peaceful coexistance between them as the poor people in the society will not feel neglected and they can enjoy the available wealth possesed by the wealthy individuals , hance there will be a mutal understanding between the people and tends to developed the economic activities of a particular society. Well-Functioning Government Waqf is a voluntary charity donated by the wealthy individuals for the welfare of the general public. Having these properties by the waqf, the government can save its resources and effectively established some developmental projects with its available resources. In this case, waqf institutions replaces the government in its responsibility of providing the basic social amenities to people and it has reduced the government participations in the economy. The more waqf properties donated the less government participation in the provision of such projects. In a contemporary globalised economy, private sectors should be given more opportunities to participate in the economic growth and replace more government participation in the economy. Government borrowing to finance the deficit in the budget has the negative implications on the nation's economy. The involvement of the private sector in to the economy will help reduce the borrowing of public sectors and prevent the possible future economic crisis. It was asserted that institutions of waqf plays a vital role in the decrease of government expenditure, this leads to decline in the budget deficit which decreases the necessity for governments borrowing, as a result of that the lending interest rate which is an obstacle for private sector investments will reduce.(Cizakca,M. 1998) With the provision of social welfare to the public by waqf institutions at no cost to the government, the interest rate will be low. 13
  14. High levels of Human Capital A qualified human capital base mirrors the degree to which social orders instruct people and advance the improvement of education , along these lines enhancing financial efficiency, tend to the youth, empowering political investment and expanding social capital. Waqf may be an instrument to disseminate knowledge, teach the vocational skills and can be use as micro finance to empower people with entrepreneurship skills. Waqf properties can be used to established Institutions of learning which will produce a qualified and competent personnel that will be employed for the betterment of the society, not only establishing institutions, waqf wealth can be used to sponsor some students of higher institutions of learning to study in the various fields of leaning thereby, enriching the society of high level human capital. In the case of entreprenuership, waqf resourses can be used to empower a number of people with different linds of skills so sa to be self dependent and enhance the economic growth of the society. Good Relations with Neighbours Peaceful relations with different nations are as vital as great relations between groups inside a nation. Nations with positive outside relations are more serene and tend to be more politically steady, have better working governments, are locally coordinated and have bring down levels of sorted out inner clash. The Qur'an enjoys that properties should be circulated among all the segments of the society. Properties were purified through charity. Charity is categorized into two: (1) compulsory charity which includes zakat (2) voluntary charity which includes waqf, sadaqa and gifts. 14
  15. Waqf institutions plays a vital role in providing the social welfare in the society , it can provide the religious places such as mosques, grave yards, tombs and others. And provide social needs of the people such as schools, bridge, hospital, bore halls, roads among others. The beneficiaries of these social welfare can either be the founder's immediate family or the public. Some scholars suggested the establishment of an institution that will assist the small and medium enterprise to develop based on charity sadaqa, gift, zakat, and waqf so as finance the Muslim small and medium enterprise. With the provision of good infrastructural facilities by waqf institutions, the good and cordial relationship tend to exist between the rich and the needy, as the needy will always be seeing the waqif as the one that help him and the one that loves him as well. Low Level of Corruption The major reason behind this peculiarity is corruption and clumsy leadership. In a couple of countries, resources are generally used and controlled by the top of the line with the unavoidable eventual outcome of underdevelopment. Proceeds of such resources are being used for personal use instead of place resources into business attempts and utilization and Public waqf that are for the benefit of the overall population generally speaking. Corruption is mentioned in the Qur'an a couple of times. Verse (2:188) states: “Do not eat up one another’s property unjustly nor bribe with it the judges in order that you may knowingly and wrongfully deprive others of their possessions.” 13 In verse 30:41 serves as deterrent as it is noted that: “Corruption has appeared on land and in the sea for what men’s hands have earned, that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, that they may return.” Multi-Purpose institutions of waqf provides the basic social amenities to the 15
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