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Comparative Analysis between Islamic Banks in Indonesia and Malaysia Using RGEC Method and Sharia Conformity Indicator Period 2011-2015

Achsania Hendratmi
By Achsania Hendratmi
2 weeks ago
Comparative Analysis between Islamic Banks in Indonesia and Malaysia Using RGEC Method and Sharia Conformity Indicator Period 2011-2015

Islam, Islamic banking, Shariah, Waqf, Zakat

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  1. Comparative Analysis between Islamic Banks in Indonesia and Malaysia Using RGEC Method and Sharia Conformity Indicator Period 2011-2015 Achsania Hendratmi , Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum, and Fatin Fadhilah Hasib Faculty of Economic and Business, UniversitasAirlangga, Indonesia achsania.hendratmi@feb.unair.ac.id, puji.sucia@feb.unair.ac.id, fatin.fadhilah@feb.unair.ac.id Keywords: Islamic bank, business performance, social performance, RGEC, sharia conformity indicator. Abstract: This research aims to compare and see the differences between Indonesia Islamic bank and Malaysia Islamic bank by using method RGEC (Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance, Earnings, and Capital). This research examines the comparison in business and social performance of 4 Indonesian Islamic banks and 3 Malaysian Islamic banks. The data collection in this research was done by collecting all the annual reports of banks that has been created as a sample over the period 2011-2015.The test result of the Independent Samples T-test and Mann Whitney Test show that there was no differences in the business performance of Islamic banks Indonesia and Malaysia as seen from the aspect of Risk profile (FDR)and Earnings (ROA).While there were differences of business and social performance as seen from Earnings (ROE), capital (CAR), and Sharia Conformity Indicator (PSR and ZR) aspects. 1 INTRODUCTION Indonesian Islamic financial industry is still relatively small, with the market share of 5-7%, while the potential for growth is still great. Islamic financial industry needs to be encouraged to grow, improve competitiveness, durability and usefulness to the national economy as a whole. Malaysia is the first country in the South-East Asia to implement Shariah based Islamic financial institutions and secondly, the growth of Islamic banks in Malaysia is phenomenal as compared to other countries. Malaysia is the key player as a country, outside the Middle East, with market share of about 10% in Islamic banking (SweeHock & Wang, 2008). For the period ended March 2010, 17 Islamic banks were operating in Malaysia, comprising 11 local Islamic banks and 6 foreign Islamic banks (www.bnm.gov.my). However one of method correspond with health level of commercial bank that used by many bank is RGEC method. Bank Indonesia issued regulations concerning the rating of health level of commercial banks based on PBI no. 13/1 / PBI / 2011 using the RGEC method.Sharia bank As a bank which is based on Islamic law, Islamic bank has two important functions, i.e. business function and social function. In UU No.21 of 2008 Pasal 4 emphasizes that in addition to performing the functions and gathering together the channeling Community Fund, Islamic bank also have social functions that must be performed, i.e. 1) In baitul maal institutions form that accepts zakat, infaq, shodaqoh and, grants and others for zakat Organization transmitted to, 2) In the form of Islamic financial institutions that receive cash endowments recipient Waqf money and channel it to the designated Manager. To measure the level of compliance with a bank against the principles of syari'ah be used shari'ah conformity model (Kuppusamy, 2010:38). By using that measurement, can be known that the position of a bank whethercompliance withShari'ah principles or not. The ratio used in this research to measure the compliance with the Shariah is the ratio of the bank there are Profit Sharing Ratio and the ratio of zakat (Zakat Ratio) Problems at the Islamic bank’s business functions in this research will be measured using RGEC method. Risk Profile factor in this researchusing liquidity risk that calculate with FDR (Finance to Deposit Ratio). Aspects of GCG include an assessment of the application of the principles of Good Corporate Governance at banks that are examined. While Earnings factor, an assessment that is used ROA ratio (Return on Assets) and ROE ratio 200 Hendratmi, A., Sukmaningrum, P. and Hasib, F. Comparative Analysis between Islamic Banks in Indonesia and Malaysia Using RGEC Method and Sharia Conformity Indicator Period 2011-2015. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Islamic Economics, Business, and Philanthropy (ICIEBP 2017) - Transforming Islamic Economy and Societies, pages 200-206 ISBN: 978-989-758-315-5 Copyright © 2018 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
  2. Comparative Analysis between Islamic Banks in Indonesia and Malaysia Using RGEC Method and Sharia Conformity Indicator Period 2011-2015 (Return on Equity). Capital factor on this research using CAR (Capital Adequacy Ratio). By doing research about the performance of the business function and social functions of the Bank, we can find out the strength of the bank and can be used for business development bank. Statement of the Problems is "Is there any difference between the performance of business function and social function of Islamic bank in Indonesia and Islamic Bank in Malaysia seen from the aspect of RGEC (Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance (GCG), Earnings, and Capital) and Islamic conformity Indicator?" 2 LITERATUR REVIEW 2.1 Islamic Bank According to UU No.10 of 1998, bank is an entity that collects funds from the public in the form of credit and / or other forms in order to improve the living standards of many people. And the Islamic Bank is an institution that collects funds from the surplus and then distributed to the parties deficit with Islamic principles. 2.2 Bank Performance Business functions of Islamic banking means all activities aimed at Islamic banks generate profit through remittances and gathering together the product with the contract accordingly. These products conform with Sharia bank function as investment managers, investors, as well as other banking financial service provider. The profit it brings Islamic banks derived from the Akad and selling (profit margin), contract for the results (profit sharing), and the lease contract (fee). In Act No. 21 of 2008 about Islamic banking on article 4 stated, that in addition to the obligation to execute the function gathers and distributes Community Fund, Islamic bank and UUS can perform social functions in the form of institution of Islamic Treasury, that receive funds originating from zakat, alms, infak, grants, or other social funds and channel it to the Manager of Waqf (nazhir) in accordance with the will of the giver of the Waqf (wakif). In accordance with the Regulation of Bank Indonesia No. 13/1/PBI/2011 about the assessment of the level of health of commercial banks, the bank is obligated to conduct an assessment of the level of Health risk-based Bank with more guidelines RGEC method refers to the circular letter of Bank Indonesia No. 13/24/DPNP dated 25 October 2011: a. Risk Profile; Assessment of the risk profile of the factors is the assessment of the inherent risks that is assessing the risks inherent in the bank's business activities, which can be either dikuantifikasikan or not, that could potentially affect the financial potential, and the application of quality risk management in bank operations performed against the 8 (eight) risks namely credit risk, market risk, liquidity risk, operational risk, legal risk, reputation risk, strategic compliance risks, along with a few parameters or indicators of the minimum mandatory reference was made by the bank in assessing inherent risk. b. Good Corporate Governance (GCG);An assessment factor of GCG is the assessment of the quality of bank management over the implementation of the principles of GCG. c. The principles of GCG and the focus of assessment of the implementation of GCG principles based on Inddonesia condition of the Bank regarding the implementation of GCG for commercial banks to pay attention to the characteristics and complexity of the bank's business. GCG assessment indicators i.e. using weights based on the assessment of composite values of Bank Indonesia provision according to PBI No. 13/1/PBI/2011 about the assessment of the level of health of public Bank.The principles of CGC in Malaysia are to be aligned with Malaysia CGC, the International Bank for International Settleman (BIS). Good Corporate Governance (GCG) for Islamic banks consists of measurements for quality of banks’ management based on five principles; transparancy, accountability, resposibility, professionalism and fittingness. Islamic banks must do self assessment periodically and follow the regulation stated. d. Earnings; earnings consists of the evaluation of earning performance, the sources, earnings management and performance of social function. The measurement depends on Islamic banks’ earning stability, structure and also trend in quantitative and qualitative aspectsEarning ratios ratio analysis is a tool to analyze or measure the level of efficiency of business and profitability achieved by the bank in question (Margaretha, 2009:61).Earnings consists of the evaluation of earning performance, the sources, earnings management and performance of social function. The measurement depends on Islamic 201
  3. ICIEBP 2017 - 1st International Conference on Islamic Economics , Business and Philanthropy banks’ earning stability, structure and also trend in quantitative and qualitative aspects. e. Capital; measurement of capital includes evaluation for capital sufficiency and capital management. Islamic banks have to fasten capital sufficiency upon risk profile; the higher risk then the capital needed is also big. Capital management is also about Islamic banks’ ability to access capital. Bank capital is a funding invested by the owner regarding the establishment of a business entity that is intended to finance the bank's business activities in addition to meet the regulations that are set by the Monetary Authority (Taswan, 2010:137). 3 CAR = Capital x 100% Risk − Weighted Asset PSR = Mudharabah + Musyarakah x 100% Total Financing d. Profit Sharing Ratio (PSR) PSR is measured as a social function which is measured by the financing whichapplies the principles of financing that are completely in accordance with Islamic principles. The PSR equationis as follows: e. Zakat Ratio (ZR) ZR is a measurement ratio of the contribution of Islamic banks in carrying out social functions. ZR is obtained from the equation: METHODOLOGY The research approach used in this research is quantitative research which is described as follows: Operational definitions of variables that have been defined for this research in the period 2011-2015 are as follows: a. Liquidity risk (FDR) Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR) is an indicator in measuring the ability of the bank to repay withdrawals made by depositors to rely on the credit given as a source of liquidity. FDR is calculated with this equation: FDR = Total Financing x 100% Total Third − Party Fund b. Earnings ROA (Return On Asset) and Return on Equity (ROE) is used to measure the ability of banks in making a profit relatively compared to its total assets and equity. The equations is as follows: ROA = Profit Before Tax x 100% Average Total Assets ROE = Profit After Tax x 100% Total Equity c. Capital Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) is required to be able to cover the risk of losses that may emerge from the investment of assets which are containing risk as well as to finance the entire fixed assets and bank inventory. The CAR equation is as follows: 202 ZR = Total Use of Zakat x 100% Profit Before Tax This research usesa type of quantitative data in the form of secondary data. Secondary datas used in this research are financial statements and GCG reports of Islamic bank in Indonesia and Malaysia period 20112015. The sample of this research is Islamic bankslisted in Bank Indonesia with the largest assets, and the banks are BNI Syariah, Bank Syariah Mandiri, Maybank Syariah during the year 20112015. While Islamic banks in Malaysia consist of Muamalat Malaysis Berhard, Maybank Islamic Berhard, and Bank Islam Malaysia. 4 RESULT Table 1: FDR. I NAME OF BANK BNI Syariah BSM Bank Muamalat Maybank Syariah Muamalat M Malaysia Berhad Maybank Islamic Berhad Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 84.99% 97.86% 92.58% 91.94% 94.40% 89.37% 81.92% 81.99% 94.15% 99.99% 84.14% 90.30% 197.7% 152.87% 157.7% 110.54% 73% 73% 74% 79% 90% 78.84 % 79.91% 83.48% 91.20% 91.40% 90.55 % 100.96% 102.70% 93.90% 84.16% 78.60 % 86.03 % 76.76 % 289.2 %
  4. Comparative Analysis between Islamic Banks in Indonesia and Malaysia Using RGEC Method and Sharia Conformity Indicator Period 2011-2015 Table 2 : Descriptive Analysis of FDR. BS. Malaysia BS. Indonesia N 15 20 Min 47.16 76.76 Max 90.00 289.20 Mean 67.2373 113.0645 Std. Deviation 12.27219 51.44361 Table 3: ROA (Returm on Asset). Islamic Banks in Malaysia have the average ratio of FDR of 67.24%, wherethe highest FDR is 90.00% and the lowest FDR is 47.16%. While Islamic banks in Indonesia havethe average ratio of FDR of 113.06%%, where the highest FDR is 289.20% and the lowest FDR is 76.76%.These results show that the FDR average ratio of Islamic banks in Indonesia(113.06%) is greater than the FDR average ratio of Islamic banks in Malaysia (67.24%). Italso shows that Islamic banks in Indonesia have a better liquidity level thanIslamic banks havein Malaysia. Banking liquidity rate, according to The Regulations of Bank Indonesia, is consideredto be in a secure position if the FDR rateis in the range of 85% to 110%. I NAME OF BANK BNI Syariah 2011 BSM Bank Muamalat Maybank Syariah Muamalat M Malaysia Berhad Maybank Islamic Berhad Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad 2012 2013 1.47 % 1.53 % 0.27 % 2.87 % 2014 2015 1.27% 1.43% 0.17% 0.56% 0.17% 0.20% 3.61% 20.13% 1.29% 1.48% 1.95% 2.25% 1.13% 0.20% 3.57% 2.88% 1.06% 0.53% 1.14 % 1.01% 0.57% 0.57% 1.16% 1.17 % 1.04% 0.96% 1.50% 1.72% 1.70 % 1.58% 1.43% Table 4: Descriptive Analysisof ROA. N 15 20 BS. Malaysia BS. Indonesia Min .53 -20.13 Max 1.72 3.61 Mean 1.1427 .4085 Std. Deviation .39153 4.95702 Table 5: ROE. Islamic banks in Malaysia havethe average ratio of ROA of 1.14% where the highest value is 1.72% and the lowest value is 0.53%. While Islamic banks in Indonesia havethe average ratio of ROA of 0.41% where the highest value is 3.61% and the lowestvalue is20.13%. These results show that Islamic banks in Malaysia have the average ratio of ROA that is greater than non-foreign exchange Islamic banks. This indicates the ability of Islamic banksin Malaysia is better than Islamic banks in Indonesia in terms of generating profit using the assets owne. NAME OF BANK BNI Syariah BSM Bank I Muamalat Maybank Syariah Muamalat Malaysia Berhad Maybank Islamic M Berhad Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 6.63% 10.18% 11.73% 13.98% 11.39% 64.84% 68.09% 44.58% 4.82% 5.92% 14.71% 3.42% 3.87% 2.20% 2.78% 4.92% 4.93% 5.05% 6.83% -32.04% 15.24% 7.49% 15.73% 12.46% 6.78% 15.20% 16.00% 15.10% 13.80% 12.20% 17.70% 20.35% 21.25% 19.86% 17.60% Table 6: Descriptive Analysis of ROE Variable. BS. Malaysia BS. Indonesia N Min Max Mean Std. Deviation 15 20 6.78 -32.04 21.25 68.09 15.1173 12.9415 4.19599 22.41908 Islamic Banks in Malaysia havethe average ratio of ROE of15.11% with the highest ratio is 21.25% and the lowest ratio is 6.78%. While Islamic banks in Indonesia have the average ratio of ROE of 12.94% with the highest value is 68.09% and the lowest value is 32.04%. These results show thatIslamic banks in Malaysia have the average ROE higher than Islamic banks in Indonesia. It indicates Islamic banks in Malaysia havea better abilitythan Islamic bankshave in Indonesia in managing capital owned for generating profit after tax. The larger the ratio, the greater the profit rate obtained by banking company. 203
  5. ICIEBP 2017 - 1st International Conference on Islamic Economics , Business and Philanthropy Table 7: CAR NAME OF BANK 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 BNI Syariah 20.75% 14.22% 16.54% 18.76% 15.48% BSM Bank I Muamalat MaybankSya riah Muamalat Malaysia Berhad Maybank Islamic M Berhad Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad 14.70% 13.88% 14.12% 14.81% 12.85% 11.78% 11.03% 14.43% 13.91% 12.36% 73.44% 63.89% 59.41% 52.41% 38.40% 15.24% 7.49% 15.73% 12.46% 13.30% 16.37% 12.35% 15.66% 16.23% 17.74% 16.30% 14.09% 13.97% 13.32% 15.30% Table 8: Descriptive Analysis of CAR Variable BS. Malaysia BS. Indonesia N 15 20 Min 12.35 11.03 Max 17.74 73.44 Mean 14.8620 25.3445 Std. Deviation 1.43480 20.07294 Islamic Banks in Malaysia havethe average ratio of CAR of 14.86%, where the highest CAR ratio is 17.74% and the lowest CAR ratio is 12.35%. While Islamic banks in Indonesia havethe average CAR ratioof 25.34% with the highest value is 73.44% and the lowest value is 11.03%. It shows that Islamic banks in Indonesia havea larger CAR average ratiothanforeign-exchange Islamic banks have. So, these datas show that Islamic banks in Indonesia havebetter ability or capital adequacy than foreign exchange in Islamic banks have in covering losses that may occur due to risky assets for operational process running. Table 9: Zakat Ratio I NAME OF BANK 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 BNI Syariah 3.63% 3.29% 4.29% 4.95% 4.15% 2.11% 3.35% 2.75% 46.26% 2.06% 2.02% 2.83% 22.94% 8.36% 11.51 % 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 3.90% 3.02% 2.61% 2.49% 2.76% 2.93% 3.12% 2.42% 2.77% 1.94% 1.58% 1.54% 1.84% 1.81% 1.27% BSM Bank Muamalat MaybankSyari ah Muamalat M Malaysia Berhad Maybank Islamic Berhad Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad BS. Malaysia BS. Indonesia Min 1.27 .00 Max 3.90 12.01 Mean 2.4000 2.1430 Std. Deviation .72284 2.56416 It is known that the zakat average ratio of Islamic banksin Malaysia is 2.4% with the highest ratio of zakat is 3.90% and the lowest ratio of it is 1.27%. While the zakat average ratio of Islamic banksin Indonesia is 2.14% with the highest ratio of zakat is 12% and the lowest ratio of zakat is 0%. It shows that 204 Table 11: Normality Test FDR ROA ROE CAR ZR Sig 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 From the results of normality test in the table above, it is described the normality test results of the data from each variable. For the whole of the ratio of FDR (Finance to Deposit Ratio), ROA (Return on Assets), ROE (Return on Equity), CAR (Capital Adequacy Ratio), and ZR (Zakat Ratio) have a significance value less than 0.05 i.e. 0.00. Therefore, to test the hypothesis, it is needed to use the differential test of free samples of Mann-Whitney Test. On the Mann Whitney Test, if the significance value is smaller than 0.05, then there is a significant difference in the variables. Conversely, if the significance value is greater than 0.05, then there is no significant difference in the variables. Table 12: Mann Whitney Test on FDR Variable Table 10. Descriptive Analysis of Zakat Ratio Variable N 15 20 Islamic banksin Malaysia havethe average greater than Islamic banks in Indonesia. These datas indicate Islamic banks in Malaysiaare much to distribute their zakat. The procedure of normality testing isperformed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test using SPSS 18 application: a. If the significance value ≥ 0.05 then the data is normally distributed. If the data is normally distributed, then the differential test will be performed using Independent Sample T-Test. b. If the significance value ≤ 0.05, then the data is not normally distributed. If the data is not normally distributed, then the differential test will be performed using Mann-Whitney Test. FDR Asymp. Sig. (2tailed) 0.000 The differential test of Mann Whitney Test shown in the table above, it is concluded that the significance value is in the amount of 0,000 and less than 0,05. It means that there is a significant difference between Islamic banks in Malaysia and Islamic banks in Indonesia seen fron the aspect of FDR in the period 2011-2015. Table 13: Mann Whitney Test on ROAVariable Asymp. Sig. (2tailed)
  6. Comparative Analysis between Islamic Banks in Indonesia and Malaysia Using RGEC Method and Sharia Conformity Indicator Period 2011-2015 ROA 0 .677 Table 14: Mann Whitney Test on ROE Variable ROE Asymp. Sig. (2tailed) 0.003 The differential test of Mann Whitney Test shown in the table above, it is concluded that the significance value of ROA is 0.677 and greater than 0,05. It means that there is no significant difference between Islamic banks in Malaysia and Islamic banks in Indonesiaseen from the aspect of ROA. Otherwise, the significance value of ROE is 0.003and less than 0.05. It means that there is a significant difference between Islamic banks in Malaysia and Islamic banks in Indonesiaseen from the aspect of ROE in the period 2011-2015. Table 15: Mann Whitney Test on CARVariable CAR Asymp. Sig. (2tailed) 0.463 The differential test of Mann Whitney Test shown in the table above, it is concluded that the signficance value of CAR is 0.463 and greater than 0.05. It means that there is no significant difference between Islamic banks in Malaysia and Islamic banks in Indonesia seen from the aspect of the CAR in the period 2011-2015. highest FDR is 289.20% and the lowest value of it is 76.76%. This result indicates the average ratio of FDR of Islamic banks in Indonesia (113.06%) is greater than the average ratio of FDR of Islamic banks in Malaysia (67.24%). It shows that Islamic banks in Indonesia may be stated to have good financial performance from liquidity risk aspect in order to be considered that it has good management in managing the liquidity of the bank. 1. Return On Asset (ROA) From the results of the differentialtests of Mann Whitney test,Islamic banks in Malaysia have the ROA average ratio higher than Islamic banks in Indonesia. It indicates the ability of Islamic banks in Malaysia is better than Islamic banks in Indonesia in generating profit using the assets owned. Earnings is considered tobe a good management in terms of making a profit relatively compared to the total assets (Taswan, 2006:167). 2. Return On Equity (ROE) Based on Whitney Mann differential test, there is a significant difference between the performance of the functions of business seen from the ROE. The results of the descriptive analysis shows that Islamic banks in Malaysia havethe ROE average higher than Islamic banks in Indonesia. It means that Islamic banksin Malaysia havebetter ability than Islamic banksin Indonesia in managing capital owned for making profit after tax. The larger this ratio the greater the profit rate obtained by banking company. Table 16: Mann-Whitney Teston ZRVariable ZR Asymp. Sig. (2tailed) 0.088 The differential test of Mann Whitney Test shown in the table above, it is concluded that the significance value of ZR is 0.088 and greater than 0.05. It means that there is no significant difference between Islamic banks in Malaysia and Islamic banks in Indonesia seen from the aspect of ZR in the period 2011-2015. After the text edit has been completed, the paper is ready for the template. Duplicate the template file by using the Save As command, and use the naming convention prescribed by your conference for the name of your paper. In this newly created file, highlight all of the contents and import your prepared text file. You are now ready to style your paper; use the scroll down window on the left of the MS Word Formatting toolbar. From the results of the differentialtests of Mann Whitney of FDR on Islamic banks in Indonesia, the average ratio of the FDR is 113.06%%, where the 3. Capital (CAR) On CAR, there is no significant difference between Islamic banks in Malaysia and Islamic banks in Indonesiain 2011-2015. From the ratio of the CAR, it suggests to invest the assets and funds committed by Islamic banks in Indonesia and Malaysia. The placement of funds on high-risk assets will lower capital adequacy ratio. 4. Zakat Ratio (ZR) Based on the Mann Whitney differential test shown in the table above, it is known that ZR significance value is 0,088 and greater than 0,05. It means that there is no significant difference in Islamic banks in Malaysia and Indonesia based on the ZR aspect, during 2011-2015 period. 5. GCG There are differences in GCG reporting to banks in Indonesia and in Malaysia. GCG reporting to banks in Indonesia is scored on every aspect listed in accordance with Bank Indonesia Regulation (PBI) no 13/1 / PBI / 2011 by valuing the 11 aspects of GCG 205
  7. ICIEBP 2017 - 1st International Conference on Islamic Economics , Business and Philanthropy assessment. every aspect of GCG valuation at a bank in Indonesia has a rating rating used to obtain the final value. The value listed in each aspect has its own weight to be the final value, the total of the final value of a composite value to determine the predicate GCG at the bank. While the assessment and reporting of GCG at a Malaysian bank that I found is a description without showing the value in every aspect that is assessed as reporting GCG at a bank in Indonesia. 1. 5CONCLUSION Measurement of Islamic banks’ healthiness will be a challenge and opportunity for Islamic banks to develop themselves. It will increase the carefulness in managing Islamic banks. Moreover, it is expected that Indonesian and Malaysia people will trust more of the performance of Islamic banks. REFERENCES Ali, Mohammad dan Asrori, Mohammad. 2004. Psikologi Remaja Perkembangan Peserta Didik. Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara. Alwisol. 2004. Psikologi Kepribadian. Malang: UMM Press. Alwasilah, A. C. 2015. Pokoknya Studi Kasus Pendekatan Kualitatif. Bandung: PT. Kiblat Buku Utama. Basri, Hasan. 2000. Remaja Berkualitas (Problematika Remaja dan Solusinya). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Desmita. 2011. Psikologi Perkembangan Peserta Didik. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya. Gordon. 2000. Parent Effective Traing: The Proven Program for Raising Responsible Children. New York: Random House Inc. Isabel Martinez, Jose Fernando Garcia. 2007. Parenting Styles and Adolescents ‘Self-Esteem in Brazil’. Psychological Reports Vol. 100. page 731-745. Kartawijaya dan Kuswanto. 2000. dalam http:// skripsipsikologie. Wordpress. Com 12010106120/polaasuh-otoritatif-orangtua-pengaruhi-kemandiriananakdalam-memilih-program-studil). Diakses tanggal 29 Nopember 2017. Mu’tadin, Z. 2002. Pengantar Pendidikan dan Ilmu Perilaku Kesehatan. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset. Papalia, D.E & Old, S.W. & Dushinfeldman, R. 2008. Human Development (Psikologi Perkembangan) Edisi Kesembilan Bagian I s/d IV Awal Kehidupan, Masa Kanak-kanak Awal, Masa Kanak-kanak Pertengahan, Masa-masa Akhir. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media. 206 View publication stats Partowisasto, Koestoer. 1983. Dinamika dalam Psikologi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Erlangga. Patriana, Pradnya. 2007. Patriana. Hubungan antara Kemandirian Diri dengan Motivasi Bekerja sebagai Pengajar Les Privat pada Mahasiswa di Semarang. Skripsi. Fakultas Psikologi UNDIP. Prawironoto. 1994. Peranan Pasar pada Masyarakat Pedesaan Daerah Jawa Tengah. Semarang: Depdikbud. Pusat Kurikulum Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2010. Bahan Pelatihan Penguatan Metodologi Pembelajaran Berdasarkan Nilai-nilai Budaya untuk Membentuk Daya Saing dan Karakter Bangsa. Reynolds, AJ, 2000. Karakteristik Dinamis Peran Ganda Wanita, Yogyakarta Santrock, J.W. 2009. Child Development. Edisi Kesebelas Jilid 2 Terjemahan Mila Rahmawati dan Anna Kuswanti. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga. Satori, Dj. dan Komariah, A. 2012. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Alfabeta. Silalahi, K. & Meinarno, E.A. 2010. Keluarga Indonesia Aspek dan Dinamika Zaman, Jakarta: Rajawali Pers. Toha, Chabib. 1993. Metodologi Pengajaran Agama. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Wilodati. 2003. Pendidikan Anak pada Keluarga Tenaga Kerja Wanita Desa Cibentar Kecamatan Jatiwangi Kabupaten Majalengka. (Tesis). Program Pascasarjana Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. Wilodati. 2016a. Praktik Pola Asuh Ayah Dalam Membina Karakter Anak Di Lingkungan Keluarga Tenaga Kerja Wanita (Studi Kasus pada Keluarga TKW di Desa Sindangmulya Kecamatan Kutawaluya Kabupaten Karawang). Disertasi. Sekolah Pasca Sarjana Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Wilodati. 2016b. Children’s Character Development: A Father’s Role. Jurnal Man in India 96 (12), pp.50535069 https://www.scopus.com/inward/ Wilodati, Budimansyah, D., Adiwikarta, S., Ruyadi, Y. 2016. A Typology of Father Parenting in The Migrant Workers Family and Effect on Character of Children” (“The 1st International Conference on Sociology Education at Sociologi Education Study Program Indonesia University of Education”). Atlantis Press. page.223-227. Yatim, D.I. & Irwanto. 1991. Kepribadian Keluarga Narkotika, Jakarta: Arcan. Yusuf L.N.S. 2011. Psikologi Perkembangan Anak & Remaja. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosda Karya. Yusuf, S. 2006. Psikologi Perkembangan Anak dan Remaja. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya Zubaedi. 2011. Desain Pendidikan Karakter Konsepsi dan Aplikasinya dalam Lembaga Pendidikan, Jakarta: Kencana. Winarsih. 2010. “Hubungan Pola Asuh Dengan Kemandirian Belajar”. Skripsi. Surakarta: UMS Tidak Diterbitkan.